Submission Preparation ChecklistAs part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
- The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
- The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
- Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
- The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
- The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
Style Sheet for Egerton Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education
Egerton Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education uses a style sheet that combines ideas drawn from available styles, i.e., the American Psychological Association (APA), the Modern Language Association (MLA), and other citation and documentation systems, to produce a unique and userfriendly format. What follows below is a summary of the basic information that potential contributors to the journal must be in possession of. These instructions will apply to all contributions of papers to the journal.
General Organisation of Papers
All contributions should be formatted to be compatible with Microsoft Word.
Note that only British English spelling is acceptable for consideration.
The font, pagination, and general appearance of the paper should be organised as follows:
The paper should be typed.
The paper should be written in Times New Roman font size 12 point.
The paper should be double-spaced.
The page number should be set at the top right-hand corner of each page. The last name of the author should be set at the top left-hand corner of each page. This name should, however, not appear, in the two blind copies (copies that do not bear the author’s name).
Egerton Journal, Vol. XII, 2019: 223-238
The Title Page of the Paper
The title of the paper should be bold-faced and should be centred and placed at the top of the first page of the paper. It should not be capitalised in its entirety.
The initials of the first and last words should be capitalised, as should all other words except conjunctions, articles, prepositions, and the word “to” in infinitives. After this, a line space should be skipped, followed by the author’s name, which should also be centred, bold-faced, and written in italics. Beneath the author’s name, also centred but without any space in between, should be placed some of the author’s particulars. In the case of academic institutions, the author’s department and university should be indicated. This information should be written in italics but should not be bold-faced.
Natural Resource Use Conflicts and Management among the Gabra of North Horr Division, Northern Kenya
Godfrey A. Olukoye
Department of Environmental Science,
Subsequent to the title of the paper, a space should be skipped, then the abstract should be presented. It should be written in italics beneath the subtitle “Abstract,” which should be bold-faced and set at the left-hand margin.
The abstract should be separated from the sub-title and the subsequent body of the essay by single horizontal lines that should run from the left to the right margins.
The conflict between missionary Christianity and indigenous African religious practices has been of major thematic concern for African writers, particularly in the early stages of development of African literature. For quite some time, male approaches to the understanding of this collision prevailed, owing to the overwhelming presence of male African authors on the literary scene. This makes the emerging female points of view on the subject of special interest to researchers. One particularly noteworthy standpoint is that of Zimbabwean Tsitsi Dangarembga, as manifested in her novel
Nervous Conditions. This paper, therefore, endeavours an analysis of Dangarembga’s portrayal of the missionary factor at work in
Rhodesia during the 1960s and early 1970s. A significant outcome of this analysis is the assembly of the multifaceted textual evidence into what is obviously the author’s highly advanced perspective on a non-
homogeneous missionary Christianity, and her recognition of its varied impact on the Shona people of Rhodesia.
The Body of the Paper
Introductory and Concluding Passages
The paper should include an introductory passage, under the sub-title “Introduction,” and a concluding passage, under the sub-title “Conclusion,” as well as appropriate sections.
The subtitles should be bold-faced and should be set at the left-hand margins of the pages.
If the paper contains notes, these should be listed towards the end of the paper, immediately after the body of the essay and before the bibliographical references. The notes should be listed under the subtitle “Notes,” which, like the other subtitles, should be bold-faced and set at the left-hand margin of the page. The notes should be separated from the preceding and subsequent sections (the concluding passage of the essay and the bibliographical references) by a line space. In addition, the notes should be justified at the left-hand margin.
Subsequent to the notes (where applicable and separated by a line space), should be listed all the sources used in the essay. The sources should be listed under the sub-title “References,” which should be bold-faced (like the other subtitles) and set at the left-hand margin.
If the paper has appendices, these should be attached to the paper at the end, after the list of references. They should be placed under the sub-title “Appendices,” which should be bold-faced and set at the left-hand margin.
Figures, Tables, and Graphs
Figures, tables, and graphs should not be included in the body of the text in the manuscript submitted to the journal. Instead, they should be included in the package on separate individual pages. This is important because it will help the editors of the journal scan them into the appropriate part of the paper without much difficulty.
To enable the editors to know exactly where to place the figures, tables, or graphs, appropriate direction should be included in the body of the text (to show where the figure, table, or graph should be situated) and on the page containing the figure, table, or graph (to indicate where the figure, table, or graph should be placed in the body of the text). These instructions should be placed inside square brackets, and both the instructions and the square brackets should be bold-faced and capitalised in their entirety.
Example (For Body of Text):
Other than streamlining the legal procedures, 30.5% of the respondents argued for the Government to provide them with credit facilities to empower them economically and improve their social status. Lack of this facility among women has been partly blamed on the existing framework of these institutions such as authorisation by the husband of a woman to acquire credit.
[PLACE TABLE 4 HERE]
On Government assistance (Table 4), 23 % of the women urged the Government to provide social amenities such as free education and medical care as they feel that the current cost sharing system is a burden to the poor single mothers hence the escalating poverty situation among them. About 20.9% of them felt that there was need for review of the current legal framework arguing that the poor single mothers were not adequately protected. Another view, expressed by 19.8% of the respondents, held that improvement of the social infrastructure is of paramount importance in poverty eradication.
Example (For Page Containing Figure, Table, or Graph):
[PLACE FIGURE IN SPACE INDICATED ON PAGE 15 OF PAPER]
Table 4: Government expected efforts
Source: Own computation
Egerton Journal uses the parenthetical method of citation to refer to sources in the body of the text. The following examples show the various approaches the journal follows in this connection.
Statements Introducing References in the Body of the Text
Where the Author is Not Mentioned in the Introductory Statement
In case the author is not mentioned in the introductory statement, a parenthetical citation should be placed at the end of the reference. If the author of the paper is referring to a specific passage in a text being referred to, the author’s last name should be placed in the parentheses, followed by a comma, the year of publication, a colon, the page number in that order. The period is placed after the parentheses.
Second, in this endeavour to problematise the imagery in which the dominant ideologies portray them, minority writers are engaged in reconstruction which involves recreation, revision and reinterpretation of a new image and a new metaphor (Stratton, 1994: 47).
In-Text References to Works Written (or Edited) by More Than Two Authors
If the text being referred to is written (or edited) by more than two authors, only the last name of the first author is used in the parenthetical citation, with the phrase “et al.” (in italics) used to stand in for the co-authors.
In 2001, the Environmental Protection Agency of the U.S.A. reported that B.t. corn is harmless to monarch butterflies, lessening earlier fears of wildlife risks (Losey et al., 1999)
In-Text Citations Where the Author of the Text Being Referred to is Named
In case the author is mentioned in the introductory statement, the name should be immediately followed by the parenthetical citation. This parenthetical citation should include the year of publication followed by a colon and the page number.
Hawton (1986: 129) distinguishes primary and secondary prevention of suicide.
Alternatively, the author’s name can be followed by a parenthetical reference to the year alone and the entire reference can be followed by a parenthetical reference to the page number being referred to alone.
As M. Shaw (l995) writes, “[t]hroughout history, and probably in pre-history too, the idea that there is a natural division of labour, dependent on the biological differences of the two sexes, has structured work patterns in the fields, in the workshops and the factories, and in the home” (p. viii).
If the citation includes more than one author and/or text, the individual authors and/or texts should be separated by a colon.
A number of studies have been done in the area of poverty (Mukuli, 1994; Ayeko et al., 1997; Gleer and Thorbecke, 1992).
If the citation concerns the entire text, rather than a particular passage in the text, the author’s name should be followed by a comma, which should in turn be followed by the year of publication.
Although very limited research has been undertaken on the subject of drug abuse in Kenyan schools, the problem is a reality (Mwenesis, 1995).
In-Text Citations of One of More than One Work by the Same Author Published in the Same Year and Included in the Bibliographical Reference
In the case where more than one work published by the same author in the same year are listed in the sources, the in-text parenthetical citations should be differentiated from one another using the letters of the alphabet (in the lower case) placed immediately after the parenthetical reference to the year.
There is evidence that girls have done better in mathematics when questions referred to specific feminine activities (Kelly, 1981a).
Girls are expected to be passive, nurturing, subjective and more interested in people than ideas. Similar ideas were given by Kelly (1981b).
Indented quotations should be preceded by introductory statements that sum up the quotations’ essential points. The introductory statement should be a complete statement consisting of one or more independent clauses. If the introductory statement names the author of the reference, the name should be followed by a citation of the year and page number(s) (in parentheses and separated by a colon). The introductory statement should conclude with a colon to anticipate the quotation. The quotation should be indented (and a new margin established) ten spaces inwards from the left-hand margin. The quotation should not be separated from the preceding passage by a space, but it should be followed by a space.
For a professional woman, conflict of roles emerges, as succinctly put by Elliot (1986: 89):
It has been shown that the attempt to combine motherhood with part employment presents women with intense overload dilemmas and conflict of loyalty and commitment and may involve considerable mental and physical stress. When this happens, emotional control becomes a struggle.
A Quotation Derived from a Work Written Not by the Speaker/Writer Himself but by Another Author/Writer
Sometimes an author will quote or paraphrase a speaker or writer whose words are contained in a work written not by himself but by another author. In this case, the abbreviation “qtd. in” is included in the parenthetical reference to show that the words are contained in another person’s work.
The Victorian economist Marshall insists on this point: “We may define LABOUR as any exertion of mind or body undergone party or wholly with a view to some good other than the pleasure derived from the work” (qtd. in Thomas, 1999: 9).
References should be listed at the end of the body of the essay, under the title “References,” which should be bold-faced, set at the left-hand corner of the page, and separated from the preceding and subsequent information with single spaces. The list of sources should be arranged in alphabetical order according to the last names of the authors concerned or, where applicable, corporate authors or first names of titles (excluding articles and conjunctions). The first line of each listing should be set at the left-hand margin, but on each second line of a given listing a new margin should be established five spaces inwards. Each source should be listed in its own particular way depending on its form and, in the case of excerpts from other works, the type of publication in which it is contained. The following examples show how different works should be listed in the section.
A Book Written by a Single Author
The list should begin with the last name of the author, followed by a comma and the initials of the author’s first and other names (where applicable). Then should come the year of publication, which should be enclosed in parentheses. Next should be the title of the book, which should be written in italics to show that it is a complete work. The year of publication and the title of the work should not be separated by any punctuation. Next should come the place of publication, a colon, and the publisher, and, finally, a period.
Edwards, R. J. (1985) Language, Society and Identity. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Whitley, W. H. (1974) Language in Kenya. Nairobi: Oxford University Press.
A Book Written by Two Authors
The last name of the first author should be listed, followed by a comma and the initials of the author’s first and other names. This should be followed by the symbol “&” and the names of the second author, which should be written normally, beginning with the initials of his or her first and other names and followed by the last name. Then should come the date of publication, which should be enclosed in parentheses. After this should be typed the title of the book (in italics), a period, the place of publication, a colon, the publisher, and a period, in that order.
Mazrui, A. A. & M. Tidy (1984) Nationalism and New States in Africa. London: Heinemann.
A Book Written by More Than Two Authors
The last name of the first author should be listed, followed a comma, the initials of the author’s first and other names, and the word “et al.” (with a
period) to stand in for the co-authors. Next should come the year of publication (in parentheses), the title of the book (in italics), a period, the place of publication, a colon, the publisher and, finally, a period.
Booth, W. C.et al. (2003) The Craft of Research. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press.
A Book Edited by One Author
The last name of the editor should be listed, followed by a comma, the initials of his first and other names, the word “ed.” (with a period and in parentheses to indicate one editor), the year of publication (in parentheses), the place of publication, a colon, the publisher, and, finally, a period.
Giles, H. (ed.) (1977) Language, Ethnicity, and Inter-Group Relations. London: Academic Press.
A Book Edited by Two Authors
The last name of the editor should be listed, followed by a comma and the initials of the author’s first and other names. This should be followed by the symbol “&,” the first and other initials of the second editor, his/her last name, and the word “eds” (in parentheses and without a period to indicate more than one editor). Then should come the year of publication (in parentheses), the title of the work being listed (in italics), a period, the place of publication, a colon, the publisher, and a period. Note that in the case of a place of publication that indicates both the city and the state in which the place of publication is situated (as in the case of American cities) the state is abbreviated.
Pamela, J. A. & R. C. Annas (eds) (2000) Literature and Society: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, Nonfiction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
More Than One Book Published in Different Years and Written or Edited by One Author
In the first listing of the author’s works, the last name of the author should be listed, followed by a comma, the initials of the first and other names, and the year in parentheses. This should be followed by the title of the work, which should be arranged in a particular way depending on whether or not it is the title of a complete work or an extract from another work (see appropriate information elsewhere in this manual). The information regarding the place of publication and the publisher should then be included in the appropriate manner.
In all subsequent listings of the author’s works, a long dash should be used to stand in for the author’s name. To execute the dash, press the underscore key five times.
Note that the titles of the works being listed should be arranged in ascending chronological order in accordance with the years of publication. Example:
Kerre, B. W. (1989) “Science and Technology: Critical Tools in the
Battle for the Second Scramble for Africa.” In: A. K. Ndeti & K.R.
Gray (eds), The Second Scramble for Africa: A Response and a Critical Analysis of the Challenges Facing Contemporary SubSaharan Africa. Nairobi: Masaki Publishers, pp. 369-382.
_____(1999) “The Role and Potential of Technical and Vocational
Education in Formal Education Systems in Africa.” In: K. King & S.
McGrath (eds), Enterprise in Africa: Between Poverty and Growth, London: Routledge, pp. 202-210.
More Than One Book Published in the Same Year and Written or Edited by One Author
In each case, the last name of the author should be listed, followed by a comma, the initials of the first and other names, and the year in parentheses. Because the books are published in the same year, a way must be found to distinguish them in the in-text citations. This should be done through the inclusion of the letters of the alphabet (written in the lower case) in the parenthetical reference to the year of publication. In the appropriate in-text citation in the body of the text the alphabetical reference should be included in the citation to distinguish the books. The reference to the year should be followed by the title of the work, which should be arranged in a particular way depending on whether or not it is the title of a complete work or an extract from another work (see appropriate information elsewhere in this manual). The information regarding the place of publication and the publisher should then be included in the appropriate manner.
Kelly, A. (1981a) “Retrieving the Missing Half.” In: A Kelly (ed.), The
Missing Half. Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp. 282-285. _____(1981b) “Choosing or Channeling.” In: A Kelly (ed.), The Missing Half. Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp. 123-138.
A Work Contained in an Anthology and Written by a Single Author The last name of the author should be listed followed by a comma and the author’s first and other initials and the year (in parentheses). This should be followed by the title of the work being referred to, which should be enclosed in quotation marks to show that it is an excerpt from another work, and a period. Next comes the word “In,” followed by a colon, the initials and last name of the author of the book containing the excerpt, a comma, the title of the book itself (in italics), a period, the place of publication, a colon, the publisher, a comma, the page numbers where the work appears in the book, and finally a period. If the authors of the book are editors, this should be indicated in the appropriate place with the word “eds” (in parenthesis and
without a period). If the book is written or edited by more than one person, this should also be indicated in the appropriate place.
Ferrington, D. P. (1991) “Childhood Aggression and Adult Violence: Early Precursors and Later Life Outcomes.” In: D. J. Pepelar & K.
Rubin (eds), The Development and Treatment of Childhood
Aggression. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 31-46.
A Work Contained in a Journal That Organises Issues According to Volumes and Numbers
The first name of the author should be listed, followed by a comma and the initials of the author’s first and other names. This should be followed by the year (in parentheses) and the title of the excerpt from the journal (in quotation marks to show it is contained in another work). Next should come a dash, followed by the title of the journal (in italics to show it is a self-contained work), a comma, the volume number (preceded by the abbreviation “Vol., ” a comma, the publication number (preceded by the abbreviation “No.,” a
comma, the page numbers where the excerpt appears in the journal, and finally a period. Example:
Osofsky, J. D. (1995) “The Effects of Exposure to Violence on Young Children.” – American Psychologist, Vol. 50, No. 9, pp. 782-788.
The last name of the author should be listed, followed by a comma, the initials of the author’s first and other names (where applicable), the year of publication (in parentheses), the title of the dissertation (quotation marks), a period, the phrase “Ph.D. Thesis,” a comma, and the university where the thesis was written. Example:
Torry, W. (1973) “Subsistence Ecology among the Gabra Nomads of Kenya/Ethiopia Frontier.” Ph.D. Thesis, Columbia University.
An Unpublished Report Housed at a University
The last name of the author should be listed, followed by a comma, the initials of the author’s first and other names (where applicable), and the year of compilation of the report (in parentheses). The title of the work should then be listed (in quotation marks), followed by a period, the phrase “Unpublished Report,” a period, and finally the university where the report is located, followed by a period. Example:
Njeremani, D. (2000) “PRA Mung’etho Zone Report.” Unpublished
Report. Egerton University.
If the report was written by a corporate author, this should be indicated in the place of the author. Example:
Kenya Forest Working Group (2000) “A Survey of Rumuruti Forest, Laikipia District.” KFWG Unpublished Report.
A Paper Presented at a Conference
The last name of the author of the paper should be listed, followed by a comma and the initials of the author’s first and other initials. This should be followed by the year of the conference (in parentheses) and the title of the paper (in quotation marks). Finally, information regarding the conference, the location where it took place, and the subject matter discussed, should be indicated. Example:
Daw, M. E. (1989) “The Contribution of Farming Systems Approaches to Sustainable Agricultural Development.” Paper presented to the
Farming Systems Research and Extension Symposium at the University of Arkansas, U.S.A.
An Article Published in a Newspaper
The last name of the author of the article should be listed, followed by the first and other initials, then the year of publication (in parentheses). This should be followed by the title of the article (in quotation marks) and a period. Next should come a dash, followed by the title of the newspaper (in italics), followed by the date of publication, a comma, the page number where the article appears in the newspaper and, finally, a period.
Knight, J. (2001) “Letter from London.” – Sunday Standard, 9 September, p. 12.
Some Comments on Punctuation
In general, double marks should be used to indicate direct quotations.
In the case where a quotation is placed inside another quotation, double marks should be used for the outside quotation and single marks for the inside quotation.
In postcolonial countries, however, work is not so easily disentangled from one's daily life: “This concept of ‘work’ as an undifferentiated abstraction comprehending an almost infinite variety of different activities is a relatively modem one. It could not emerge in the less complex societies of the remote past the undeveloped world, where the whole of the population customarily engages in the business of procuring subsistence and where an individual's tasks are preordained by his or her social position” (Thomas, 1999: xiv).
In general, the full stop (or period) should be placed before quotation marks where appropriate. Example:
As Tablino (1999) writes, “they await from the heavens the rain; from the rain grows the grass; from the grass milk; from milk, health.”
Similarly, the comma should generally be placed before quotation marks.
“That pragmatic and uninspired approach to life was something I understood well,” she recalls.
When the Quotation Is Followed by the Page Reference
In the case where an in-text parenthetical reference appears at the end of the sentence, and where the reference consists of a direct quotation, the closing quotation mark should precede the parenthetical reference.
“They cook, bring water from the rivers, wash utensils and fetch firewood from the forests or bush. They also perform the task of carrying the loads on their backs. According to the tribal customs which govern the division of labour, no man would dare to indulge in any of these activities except in a case of emergency, otherwise he would scandalise the women and it would be difficult for such a man to get any girl to marry him” (pp. 32-33).
The Dash and the Hyphen
The hyphen should not be confused for the dash. The dash should be longer than the hyphen.
Example (For the Hyphen):
Self-help women’s groups are a prime example of harambees; most recently originating in Maendeleo ya Wanawake, or “Progress for Women” groups, women’s self-help groups proliferate; as of 1988 there were more than 23,000 groups with 1,400,000 members (Robinson, 1997: 248-249).
Example (For the dash):
Yet when Ogot represents sexual harassment – in her typical Gothic style – she is sympathetic.
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